By Dr Desmond S. T. Nicholl
During this 3rd variation of his renowned undergraduate-level textbook, Des Nicholl recognises sound snatch of uncomplicated rules is key in any advent to genetic engineering. accordingly, in addition to being completely up-to-date, the e-book additionally keeps its specialize in the basic rules utilized in gene manipulation. The textual content is split into 3 sections: half I offers an creation to the suitable easy molecular biology; half II, the tools used to govern genes; and half III, functions of the know-how. there's a new bankruptcy dedicated to the rising value of bioinformatics as a different self-discipline. different extra good points contain textual content containers, which spotlight vital facets of issues mentioned, and bankruptcy summaries, which come with goals and studying results. those, besides key notice listings, proposal maps and a word list, will let scholars to tailor their research to fit their very own studying kinds and eventually achieve a company take hold of of a topic that scholars often locate tough.
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Additional info for An Introduction to Genetic Engineering
If [α-32 P]dNTP is supplied this will be incorporated into the newly synthesised strand (solid circles). 13:16 P1: SBT 09780521850063c03 CUUS128/Nicholl 978 0 521 85006 3 March 11, 2008 WORKING WITH NUCLEIC ACIDS Fig. 4 Labelling DNA by primer extension (oligolabelling). (a) DNA is denatured to give single-stranded molecules. (b) An oligonucleotide primer is then added to give a short double-stranded region with a free 3 -OH group. (c) The Klenow fragment of DNA polymerase I can then synthesise a copy of the template strand from the primer, incorporating [α-32 P]dNTP (solid circles) to produce a labelled molecule with a very high specific activity.
This is the structure proposed by Watson and Crick in 1953. Alternative forms of DNA include the A-form (righthanded helix) and the Z-form (left-handed helix). Although DNA structure is a complex topic, particularly when the higher-order arrangements of DNA are considered, a simple representation will sufﬁce here, as shown in Fig. 5. 4 nm Fig. 5 The double helix. This is DNA in the commonly found B-form. 4 nm, with 10 base pairs per turn. The sugar–phosphate ‘backbones’ are antiparallel (arrowed) with respect to their 5 →3 orientations.
Promoter structure is important in determining the binding of RNA polymerase but will not be dealt with here. When the RNA molecule is released, it may be immediately available for translation (as in prokaryotes) or it may be processed and exported to the cytoplasm (as in eukaryotes) before translation occurs. Translation requires an mRNA molecule, a supply of charged tRNAs (tRNA molecules with their associated amino acid residues), and ribosomes (composed of rRNA and ribosomal proteins). The ribosomes are the sites where protein synthesis occurs; in prokaryotes, ribosomes are composed of three rRNAs and some 52 different ribosomal proteins.
An Introduction to Genetic Engineering by Dr Desmond S. T. Nicholl