By M.D. Fulton Roberts
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Hence it appears t h a t a part of the human A antigen is also found in pig cells of Group A, and it is against this part t h a t the immune anti-A is directed ; the other part of the human A antigen, which is not found in pig cells, is recognised by the natural form of anti-A. The forms of antibody can thus be summarised : first, anti-AjL, a naturally-occurring room-temperature agglutinating antibody, specific for human A x cells. Second, THE ABO 59 SYSTEM anti-A, also a naturally-occurring room-temperature agglutinating antibody reacting with human A x and A 2 cells.
CHAPTER X BLOOD GROUPS AND DISEASE THE relationship of blood groups to haemolytic disease of the newborn and to incompatible blood transfusion has already been discussed. These are the two principal ways in which blood groups can be a direct cause of disease : and of disease which is in large measure preventable. There are other ways, however, in which blood groups appear to be related to certain diseases though the mechanisms of the relationship are obscure. At present the means of enquiry into these matters is statistical.
This is t h a t the red cells are not furnished with the antigen directly but they absorb it from the plasma. This can also be accomplished in vitro ; cells lacking Le a will become Le a positive after exposure to plasma containing Le a ; and the same can be shown for Le 6 . Newborn infants lack the Lewis antigens at birth, but a few weeks later the antigens appear in the plasma and are absorbed on the cells. The genes t h a t govern the development of these Lewis antigens, therefore, do not equip the red cells with the antigen but provide for its appearance in the plasma and in the bodily secretions such as saliva.
An Introduction to Human Blood Groups by M.D. Fulton Roberts