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By M.P. Wiedeman (Auth.)

ISBN-10: 0127493506

ISBN-13: 9780127493503

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V. PIA MATER In present day studies, the pial circulation in the living animal is viewed through the microscope most frequently in cats, rabbits, and rats, using either cranial windows or open craniotomies. A detailed description of the vascular pattern seen on the surface of the brain is lacking, but information is available from investigations concerned with blood flow, blood pressures, and vascular reactivity. Forbes (1928) noted that the larger arteries pulsated with cardiac systole, that the color contrast between the bright scarlet arterial vessels and the purplish red veins was striking, and that there were numerous small arterioles which either joined other arterioles or turned down into the cortex and disap­ peared.

In most instances, each of the nine to ten precapillary vessels subdivide into three to five capillaries. Based on data of flow distribution, Fronek and Zweifach (1977) have proposed a schematic of arteriolar branching seen in Fig. 6. The distribution of capillaries in the rabbit tenuissimus muscle is shown in Fig. 7. Precapillary vasomotion is consistently observed and causes variations in flow velocity and vessel diameter by about 8-10%. Pressure measurements were also made by Fronek and Zweifach (1975), and it was reported that pressure in small arteries (50 μτη diameter) was 96 mmHg; in arterioles (40 μηι diameter) 88 mmHg; in terminal arterioles (20 μτη diameter) 70 mmHg; and in precapillary vessels (9 μπι diameter) the pressure had fallen to 38 mm Hg.

7. Precapillary vasomotion is consistently observed and causes variations in flow velocity and vessel diameter by about 8-10%. Pressure measurements were also made by Fronek and Zweifach (1975), and it was reported that pressure in small arteries (50 μτη diameter) was 96 mmHg; in arterioles (40 μηι diameter) 88 mmHg; in terminal arterioles (20 μτη diameter) 70 mmHg; and in precapillary vessels (9 μπι diameter) the pressure had fallen to 38 mm Hg. Only about 30-35% of the capillaries had blood flow under resting conditions as determined by direct in vivo observation of the muscle, which is estimated to have a capillary density of 1000 vessels/mm .

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An Introduction to Microcirculation by M.P. Wiedeman (Auth.)


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