By Donald W. Katzner
In plying their alternate, social scientists frequently are faced with major phenomena that seem incapable of size. prior perform could recommend that find out how to take care of those circumstances is to paintings tougher at discovering applicable measures in order that average quantitative research can nonetheless be utilized. Professor Katzner's strategy, in spite of the fact that is kind of diverse. instead of targeting the development of measures, he increases the query of ways such phenomena may be investigated and understood within the absence of numerical gauges to symbolize them.
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Extra info for Analysis Without Measurement
Instead, an attempt will be made to describe briefly some of the meanings it has today. The notion of system seems to have appeared on at least three distinct levels: (i) as applied to practical problems, (ii) as used to reorganize approaches and redefine concepts in various disciplines, and (iii) as studied to gain a better understanding of its logical foundations and properties. Each of these is considered in turn. Perhaps deriving inspiration from the highly publicized complex of systems used to land a man on the moon, the "systems approach" has recently become quite fashionable.
The Winch argument suggests, however, that the latter is possible only with appropriate rules that identify communicable symbols with the characteristics, and these, in turn, will depend on what has been socially acceptable to others working in the area. So far Winch's argument applies to all scientific inquiry. In the case of the physical sciences the phenomena under investigation are controlled by "nature"; rules are important only in so far as they preside over the investigation itself. Whereas the physical sciences require consideration of only one set of rules, in the behavioral sciences, the researcher's objects of study as well as his study of them are human activities and thus governed according to rules.
On the other hand, the variable that may assume as "values" any of the elements of S is a variable, call it x, representing actual values present in particular human beings. In this case x is defined by articulating a rule. For the moment, regard entries on the original list as primitives. "9 Such an approach, however, may not be precise enough to permit practical distinctions. Perhaps it is even necessary to consider degrees of honesty. Under these circumstances, it may be better to push the primitives one step back and define honesty (and the rest of the list) entirely within the system.
Analysis Without Measurement by Donald W. Katzner